The gateway to Grove Music Online, with access to search The Oxford Dictionary of Music and The Oxford Companion to Music The authoritative resource for music research with over 52,000 articles written by nearly 9,000 scholars charting the diverse history and cultures of music around the globe The Sassanid period (AD 226–651), in particular, has left us ample evidence pointing to the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. During the Baroque era, polyphonic contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important (counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the Medieval era). The names of some important musicians such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin, and titles of some of their works have survived. Hubbard, editor in chief by w and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. C. K.[full citation needed] also affirms the profound homogeneity of approach. Yet an argument can be made that music has been related much more closely with politics and the social life of its publics than with painting, poetry, or the novel. But the Greek term from which the word music is derived was a generic one, referring to any art or science practiced under the aegis of the Muses. According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, Jubal was named by the Bible as the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organum. In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. 5:11, 12; 24:8, 9; Ps. Most pieces in these forms are for one to three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: famous composers include Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini. It remains the oldest genre of extant music, of which the manner of performance and (with increasing accuracy from the 5th century onwards) the names of the composers, and sometimes the particulars of each musical work's circumstances, are known. The history of music itself is largely an account of its adjunctive function in rituals and ceremonies of all kinds—religious, military, courtly—and in musical theatre. What is original in Hegel’s view is his claim that music, unlike the other arts, has no independent existence in space, is not “objective” in that sense; the fundamental rhythm of music (again an aspect of number) is experienced within the hearer. As for other musical instruments, in 2008 archaeologists discovered a bone flute in the Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany. (Much speculation, however, was clearly directed toward that more-restricted meaning with which we are familiar.) As Aristotle said, “It is not easy to determine the nature of music or why anyone should have a knowledge of it.”. 2:8; Amos 6:4–6; Isa. Donate . The invention of specific instruments is attributed to particular deities: Hermes the lyre, Pan the syrinx (panpipes) and Athena the aulos (flute). [20] The late Baroque style was polyphonically complex and richly ornamented. A wood-lined pit contained a group of six flutes made from yew wood, between 30 and 50 cm long, tapered at one end, but without any finger holes. 15). The essence of music he held to be rhythm, which finds its counterpart in the innermost self. Set. They carried their style with them: smooth polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as appropriate. Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted. Plato was a stern musical disciplinarian; he saw a correspondence between the character of a person and the music that represented him or her. According to legend, Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, sent the minister Ling Lun to find bamboo tubes to use for tuning pipes. [citation needed] The invention of musical amplification and electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer, in the mid-20th century revolutionized classical and popular music, and accelerated the development of new forms of music. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed (2 Sam. Music performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and recording of performances. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, 17th- and 18th-century Western conceptions, Theories of musical meaning since the 19th century, Considerations related to performance practice, The Canadian Encyclopedia - Music History, PBS LearningMedia - What Is Music? One of the most dramatic turning points in the history of music occurred at the beginning of the 17th Baroque music, a style of music that prevailed during the period from about 1600 to about 1750, known for its grandiose, dramatic, and energetic spirit but also for its stylistic diversity. The Epicureans and Stoics adopted a more naturalistic view of music and its function, which they accepted as an adjunct to the good life. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara. Music prior to 1600 was modal rather than tonal. In the 21st century the effects of Greek thought are still strongly evident in the belief that music influences the ethical life; in the idea that music can be explained in terms of some component such as number (that may itself be only a reflection of another, higher source); in the view that music has specific effects and functions that can be appropriately labelled; and in the recurrent observation that music is connected with human emotion. Early in the 20th century, it was regarded as a commonplace that a musical tone was characterized by the regularity of its vibrations; this uniformity gave it a fixed pitch and distinguished its sounds from “noise.” Although that view may have been supported by traditional music, by the latter half of the 20th century it was recognized as an unacceptable yardstick. The now-popular instrumental music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the symphony, and the concerto, though none of these were specifically defined or taught at the time as they are now in music theory. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. Double pipes, such as those used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX.12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony. Traditional music is not just musical "sound," it is a powerful way to engage and reengage tribal heritage and memory. The vertical dimension of chord structure—that is, the effects created by sounding tones simultaneously—is not a part of South Asian classical music; the divisions of an octave (intervals) are more numerous than in Western music, and the melodic complexity of the music goes far beyond that of its Western counterpart. Famous composers in Venice included the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovanni, as well as Claudio Monteverdi, one of the most significant innovators at the end of the era. René Descartes (1596–1650), too, saw the basis of music as mathematical. It was a part of the Hurrian songs, more specifically Hurrian hymn no. Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or apocalyptic texts. The style of the Burgundian composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and mannered style of the late 14th century ars subtilior, and contained clear, singable melody and balanced polyphony in all voices. The 14th century in European music history is dominated by the style of the ars nova, which by convention is grouped with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with early Renaissance ideals and aesthetics. The Acoustic era (1877–1925) The Electrical era (1925–1945) The Magnetic era (1945–1975) The Digital era (1975–present). [34] Early Indian musical tradition also speaks of three accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning melody and Gan meaning to sing). Music interested them in terms extrinsic to itself, in its observable effects; in its connections with dance, religious ritual, or festive rites; because of its alliance with words; or for some other extramusical consideration. The expanded Fourth Edition includes thousands of new entries on trends, styles, record labels, venues, and music festivals. 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